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BioProjects & BioSamples

A BioProject is a collection of biological data for a single initiative, originating from a single organization or from a consortium. A BioSample includes descriptive information about the biological source materials relating to experimental assays.

Automatically create these during a sequence data submission or link them during submission.

What You Should Expect

You should register BioProject or BioSamples separately from your data only in the following situations:

  1. Large and long-term projects where samples are collected over a course of year or more
  2. If an NCBI curator instructed you to register a separate BioProject or BioSamples
  3. If you are submitting an annotated genome before submitting the reads or the unannotated genome

A BioProject describes the research effort/study under which you will submit all your sample information and sequence data files. Provide required information best describing your data:

  1. Data Type
  2. Sample scope
  3. Organism (when scope is is monoisolate or multiisolate) or common taxonomic branch (when scope is multispecies and the species are fairly closely related).
    Example: Enter "primates" if you are making a comparison of primates from different continents.
  4. BioProject release date (Note: BioProjects are automatically released when public sequence data is linked to them).

Optional fields:

  • Research grant(s)
  • BioSample and publication information, if you have them. You will be able to skip these by pressing "Continue."

BioSample has specific required attributes for different types of samples that were collected.

You will choose the one that best describes your samples:

  1. Pathogen affecting public health
  2. Microbe
  3. Model organisms
  4. Metagenome
  5. Plant
  6. Virus

Each BioSample must have metadata that makes it unique from all other submitted samples. The following three attributes do not make a sample unique:

  1. Sample name
  2. Sample title
  3. Description

You can add custom attributes by renaming existing, non-required columns to a relevant attribute.

Submit your sequence data on desktop. The desktop view allows you to easily:

  • Enter your information
  • Enter or upload metadata
  • Upload large source files
  • Review your submission

Email me a link to get started


BioProjects & BioSamples FAQ

  • You should only do this if you are instructed by a curator, have a multi year project, or if you are submitting an annotated genome before submitting the reads or the unannotated genome.

  • You should only do this if you are instructed by a curator or if you have a multi year project and samples are collected over a long period of time.

  • Yes, this is the preferred approach to data submission. The exception is if you are submitting an assembled genome with annotation.


GenBank is the world's largest nucleotide archive containing sequences from all branches of life. The archive is a foundation for medical and biological discovery.

  • Submit assembled SARS-CoV-2, Influenza, Norovirus, Dengue virus, rRNA, rRNA-ITS, metazoan COX1, Eukaryotic nuclear mRNA sequences.

  • Submit genomic DNA, organelle, ncRNA, plasmids, other viruses, phages, mRNA, synthetic constructs.

  • Submit assembled eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes (WGS or Complete).

Sequence Read Archive (SRA)

SRA is the largest publicly-available repository of high throughput sequencing data. The archive accepts data from all branches of life as well as metagenomic and environmental surveys.

Other Tools

  • TSA

    Submit computationally assembled, transcribed RNA sequences after submitting unassembled reads to SRA. Learn more

  • GEO

    Submit RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, and other types of gene expression and epigenomics datasets. Learn more

  • BioProject & BioSample

    Choose a tool above if submitting sequence data. Learn more

Medical Genetics & Variation Tools

Submit clinical data, small & large human genomics variants, and genotype & phenotype data.

Other Resources